Cleavage of Protein Kinase D After Acute Hypoinsulinemia Prevents Excessive Lipoprotein Lipase-Mediated Cardiac Triglyceride Accumulation
OBJECTIVE During hypoinsulinemia, when cardiac glucose utilization is impaired, the heart rapidly adapts to using more fatty acids. One means by which this is achieved is through lipoprotein lipase (LPL). We determined the mechanisms by which the heart regulates LPL after acute hypoinsulinemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two different doses of streptozocin (55 [d-55] and 100 [d-100] mg/kg) to induce moderate and severe hypoinsulinemia, respectively, in rats. Isolated cardiomyocytes were also used for transfection or silencing of protein kinase D (PKD) and caspase-3. RESULTS There was substantial increase in LPL in d-55 hearts, an effect that was absent in severely hypoinsulinemic d-100 animals. Measurement of PKD, a key element involved in increasing LPL, revealed that only d-100 hearts showed an increase in proteolysis of PKD, an effect that required activation of caspase-3 together with loss of 14-3-3, a binding protein that protects enzymes against degradation. In vitro, phosphomimetic PKD colocalized with LPL in the trans-golgi. PKD, when mutated to prevent its cleavage by caspase-3 and silencing of caspase-3, was able to increase LPL activity. Using a caspase inhibitor (Z-DEVD) in d-100 animals, we effectively lowered caspase-3 activity, prevented PKD cleavage, and increased LPL vesicle formation and translocation to the vascular lumen. This increase in cardiac luminal LPL was associated with a striking accumulation of cardiac triglyceride in Z-DEVD–treated d-100 rats. CONCLUSIONS After severe hypoinsulinemia, activation of caspase-3 can restrict LPL translocation to the vascular lumen. When caspase-3 is inhibited, this compensatory response is lost, leading to lipid accumulation in the heart.
Muscle Contraction, but Not Insulin, Increases Microvascular Blood Volume in the Presence of Free Fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance
OBJECTIVE Insulin and contraction each increase muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV) and glucose uptake. Inhibiting nitric oxide synthase blocks insulin's but not contraction's effects. We examined whether contraction could augment the MBV increase seen with physiologic hyperinsulinemia and whether free fatty acid (FFA)-induced insulin resistance differentially affects contraction- versus insulin-mediated increases in MBV. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Rats were fasted overnight. Plasma FFAs were increased by intralipid/heparin infusion (3 h), insulin was increased with a euglycemic clamp (3 mU · min–1 · kg–1), and hindlimb muscle contraction was electrically stimulated. Muscle MBV was measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Insulin transport into muscle was measured using 125I-insulin. BQ-123 (0.4 mg/h) was used to block the endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor A. RESULTS Superimposing contraction on physiologic hyperinsulinemia increased MBV within 10 min by 37 and 67% for 0.1 or 1 Hz, respectively (P < 0.01). FFA elevation alone did not affect MBV, whereas 0.1 Hz stimulation doubled MBV (P < 0.05) and increased muscle insulin uptake (P < 0.05) despite high FFA. Physiologic hyperinsulinemia during FFA elevation paradoxically decreased MBV (P < 0.05). This MBV decrease was reversed by either 0.1 Hz contraction or ET-1 receptor A antagonism, and the combination raised MBV above basal. CONCLUSIONS Contraction recruits microvasculature beyond that seen with physiologic hyperinsulinemia by a distinct mechanism that is not blocked by FFA-induced vascular insulin resistance. The paradoxical MBV decline seen with insulin plus FFA may result from differential inhibition of insulin-stimulated nitric oxide–dependent vasodilation relative to ET-1 vasoconstriction. Our results implicate ET-1 as a potential mediator of FFA-induced vascular insulin resistance.
OBJECTIVE Establishing Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for glucose toxicity–mediated life span reduction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS C. elegans were maintained to achieve glucose concentrations resembling the hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic patients. The effects of high glucose on life span, glyoxalase-1 activity, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and on mitochondrial function were studied. RESULTS High glucose conditions reduced mean life span from 18.5 ± 0.4 to 16.5 ± 0.6 days and maximum life span from 25.9 ± 0.4 to 23.2 ± 0.4 days, independent of glucose effects on cuticle or bacterial metabolization of glucose. The formation of methylglyoxal-modified mitochondrial proteins and ROS was significantly increased by high glucose conditions and reduced by mitochondrial uncoupling and complex IIIQo inhibition. Overexpression of the methylglyoxal–detoxifying enzyme glyoxalase-1 attenuated the life-shortening effect of glucose by reducing AGE accumulation (by 65%) and ROS formation (by 50%) and restored mean (16.5 ± 0.6 to 20.6 ± 0.4 days) and maximum life span (23.2 ± 0.4 to 27.7 ± 2.3 days). In contrast, inhibition of glyoxalase-1 by RNAi further reduced mean (16.5 ± 0.6 to 13.9 ± 0.7 days) and maximum life span (23.2 ± 0.4 to 20.3 ± 1.1 days). The life span reduction by glyoxalase-1 inhibition was independent from the insulin signaling pathway because high glucose conditions also affected daf-2 knockdown animals in a similar manner. CONCLUSIONS C. elegans is a suitable model organism to study glucose toxicity, in which high glucose conditions limit the life span by increasing ROS formation and AGE modification of mitochondrial proteins in a daf-2 independent manner. Most importantly, glucose toxicity can be prevented by improving glyoxalase-1–dependent methylglyoxal detoxification or preventing mitochondrial dysfunction.
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